Background: Nephourolithiasis is a term refers to kidney stones formation, due to aggregation of minerals leading to the development of crystalluria in kidneys or any part of the urinary tract system. Many herbs were used to fragment and crush renal calculi. Habitually, it is noted that people who suffer from kidney problems are advised to eat large quantities of watermellon fruit then, the patient feels healing, without knowing the scientific reason for this improvement.
Objectives The current study was designed to investigate the antilithiatic effects of Fresh Watermelon Juice (FWJ) on calcium oxalate kidney stones.
Methods Direct exposure technique between FWJ and enucleate stons was used. The pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of the exposure solution in addition to the chemical and morphological properties of the renal calculi before and after exposure using X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were investigated.
Results: after 24 hours of submerging renal calculi with FWJ, the calculi appeared dissolved and fragmented with absence of solidity, rigidity and crystallization. The Ph Value and electrical conductivity (EC) of FWJ increased significantly after 24 hours of submerging the calculi increasing total soluble solids and ion concentrations in the solution. X-ray diffraction showed sharp peaks and intensity of of calcium oxalate calculi indicating a significant change in calculus compositionn, shape and crysallization within 48 hours of exposure FWJ.Scanning electron microscope images of treated and untreated renal calculi showed a significant difference in the shape of the crystals that have been transformed from their regular shape as bipyramids with tetragonal crystal point group symmetry to sculpted and un coordinated particles with the absence of a regular geometric shape of crystals with no clear crystallization patterns.
Conclusion: Fresh watermellone juice appears to have a strong effect on the shape and composition and integrity of renal calculi which may aid its expulsion from the body.