Bulletin of Advanced English Studies

Volume 9 - Issue 1 (3) | PP: 22 - 29 Language : English
DOI : https://doi.org/10.31559/BAES2024.9.1.3
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A Reading in the History of English Language Education in Iraq

Amjed Alrickaby
Received Date Revised Date Accepted Date Publication Date
2/4/2024 21/5/2024 29/5/2024 13/6/2024
Abstract
English language education (ELE) in Iraq has always been in a state of confusion and unsatisfactory outcomes; the curricula and methods have continually been subject to criticism and revisions since its commencement. To explore the intricacies of ELE in Iraq, this paper maps out its history to identify the key historical periods in its development and bring into focus the major challenges that were encountered. A historical approach was adopted, including examining historical documents, educational policies, curriculum materials, previous studies, personal communication, and other relevant archival sources. The findings indicate that ELE in Iraq dates back to the nineteenth century, primarily within missionary schools under Ottoman rule, albeit on a limited scale. More specifically, nationwide ELE in Iraq can be categorized into four distinct phases named for the prevailing teaching methodologies: Grammar-Translation (1921-1938), Direct Method (1940-1970), Audio-Lingual Method (1970-2001), and Communicative Approach (2002 - present). Throughout these phases, it becomes evident that instructional methods in Iraq often lagged behind global trends. Furthermore, persistent challenges in ELE development, notably the lack of effective training and teaching resources, have impeded progress. By contextualizing these historical challenges, this study aims to inform current and future decisions regarding curriculum development, ultimately striving to improve the efficiency of ELE in Iraq.


How To Cite This Article
Alrickaby , A. (2024). A Reading in the History of English Language Education in Iraq . Bulletin of Advanced English Studies, 9 (1), 22-29, 10.31559/BAES2024.9.1.3

Copyright © 2024, This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.